The Amazon region has the largest tropical rainforest in the world and nowhere have so many species of plants and animals. The Amazon region is about 4 million km2 in size, which is about half of the total area of Brazil. The area is mainly in the states of Amazonas, Pará, Amapá, Acre and Roirama.
The tropical rainforest of the Amazon does not stop at the border of Brazil, but continues in French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. It is estimated that in total are 800,000 Indians living Amazon region, whose 120,000 in Brazil. The rest of the population consists mainly of “mameluco’s” or “cabloco’s”, people with Indian and Portuguese ancestry.
The main economic activities in the Amazon region are farming, mining and often illegal, timber. A new danger threatens the Amazon is the discovery of oil in the heart of the rainforest. The opening and exploitation of available resources is carried out normally by foreign investors. Because of all this economic activity is likely a felling in the Amazon see unprecedented in world history do not know. The “lungs” of the world is probably in a relatively short time between ten and fifteen percent gone. Late eighties disappeared each year 21,500 km2 of rainforest each year.
Environmental groups, scientists and Indians, the main victims of uncontrolled exploitation and colonization of the Amazon, have been warning for many years as the catastrophic effects of deforestation and environmental pollution at this rate. They make occasional successes and the government of Brazil seems to be growing awareness of the precarious situation. The new constitution is a separate chapter devoted to the ecology and the government-Color has created a new Department, The Institute for Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, the IBAMA. Early nineties was still “only” 11,000 km2 of rainforest felled. Much more money and international pressure seem necessary to interrupt the downward spiral.
Someone who fiercely resisted the destruction of tropical rain forest was the president of the union of rubber tappers, Chico Mendes. Unfortunately he was too onerous and on December 22, 1988 he was assassinated in his home found. The assassins were hired by a landowner.
Under the name Marañon rises in Amazonian Peru, at the foot of the Andes. In Brazil’s his first and only Solimões and the Rio Negro river flowing into the Amazon called.
The Amazon (Rio Amazonas), Brazil is 3150 km long, the entire length of the river is 7025 km. Only the Nile in Africa is even longer. Major tributaries are the Rio Negro, the Xingu, Madeira, Tocantins and the Tapajos. The Amazon is further fed by approximately 1,000 tributaries originate in the mountains of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and especially Bolivia. At its widest 12 km, the Amazon. The Amazon River (Rio Amazonas) is the largest river system in the world and has the largest body of freshwater in the world. The mouth of estuary of the river near the city of Belem 300 km wide and consists of hundreds of islands and rivers.
The largest island in the mouth of the Amazon Ilha de Marajó. The surface of this island is almost 50,000 km2 and is the largest river island in the world and larger than many European countries!.
It is remarkable that there is no bridge over the Amazon lies.